British Bouviers, Pedigree dogs, Dog Kennels
The Bouvier des Flandres is a herding dog breed originating in Flanders. They were originally used for general farm work including cattle droving, sheep herding, and cart pulling, and nowadays as guard dogs and police dogs, as well as being kept as pets. The French name of the breed means, literally, "Cow Herder of Flanders," referring to the Flemish origin of the breed. Other names for the breed are Toucheur de Boeuf (cattle driver) and Vuilbaard (dirty beard).
The monks at the Ter Duinen monastery, in Flanders, were the Bouvier's first breeders. The Bouvier was created by breeding imports such as Irish wolfhounds with local farm dogs, until a breed considered to be the predecessor of the modern Bouvier was obtained. This became a working dog able to perform tirelessly, herding and guarding cattle and even pulling cargo carts, thanks to its strength and temperament, and to withstand the local weather conditions due to its thick coat. Its ears and tail were usually cropped for practical reasons.
Purebred dog refers to a dog of a modern dog breed that closely resembles other dogs of the same breed, with ancestry documented in a stud book and registered with one of the major dog registries. Documentation (so that the dog is known to be descended from specific ancestors) and registration distinguish modern breeds from dog types or landraces of dog (sometimes called natural breeds or ancient breeds) that arose under human influence over a long period of time to do a specific type of work.
Purebred dog may also be used in a different manner to refer to dogs of specific dog types and landraces that are not modern breeds. An example is cited by biologist Raymond Coppinger, of an Italian shepherd who keeps only the white puppies from his sheep guardian dog's litters, and culls the rest, because he defines the white ones as purebred. Coppinger says, "The shepherd's definition of pure is not wrong, it is simply different from mine." However, the usual definition is the one that involves modern breeds.
Purebred dogs are by definition registered members of modern breeds. Breeds of dogs may be registered either in an open stud book or a closed stud book. The term purebred dog is typically used to mean dogs registered with a closed stud book registry, but the connotation of desirability of this type of registration is disputed by owners of purebred dogs from open stud book registries.
* The closed stud book requires that all dogs descend from a known and registered set of ancestors; this results in a loss of genetic variation over time, as well as a highly identifiable breed type, which is the basis of the sport of conformation showing. In order to enhance specific characteristics, most modern purebred dogs registered with closed stud books are highly inbred, increasing the possibility of genetic-based disease.
* The open stud book, meaning some outcrossing is acceptable, is often used in herding dog, hunting dog, and working dog (working dog meaning police dogs, assistance dogs, and other dogs that work directly with humans, not on game or livestock) registries for dogs not also engaged in the sport of conformation showing. Outcrosses with other breeds and breeding for working characteristics (rather than breeding for appearance) are assumed to result in a healthier dog. Overuse of one particular stud dog due to the desirability of the dog's working style or appearance leads to a narrowing of genetic diversity, whether the breed uses an open stud book or a closed stud book. The Jack Russell Terrier Club of America states, "Inbreeding favors genes of excellence as well as deleterious genes." Some open stud book breeds, such as the Jack Russell Terrier, have strict limitations on inbreeding.